## Sports Awards in India

National Sports Day is celebrated every year in India on August 29 on Dhyanchand’s birthday. National Sports Awards are also distributed on this day. Let’s know how many sports awards are there

## How many sports awards are held in India

Government of India Announce Total 4 Awards every year. 3 awards which is given to sports athletes and 1 award goes to mentors. Given in Sports Athlete and Men

### Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna

According to the Sports Ministry website, the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award is India’s highest sports award. The award is named after former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi. It is given to the best player of India every year, although the award player is selected on the basis of several criteria. The player who wins this award can be from any field.

### Arjun Award

Arjuna Award is the second highest award after Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna. It is also given on the basis of the past four years’ performance of the players. The Arjuna Award was instituted in 1961. So far 719 players have been awarded this award. In this, the player gets a small statue, certificate and a cash prize of five lakh rupees.

### Dronacharya Award

As the name suggests, this award is given not to the player but to his coach. Sports coaches who prepare medal winners are honored with this award. The award was instituted in 1985. A total of 107 Gurus have received this award so far. In this, the coach gets a small statue, certificate and a cash prize of five lakh rupees.

### Dhyan Chand Award

Those who have supported whole life for the development of the game are honored with this award. The award was instituted in 2002. A total of 56 people have received this honor so far. It also has a small statue, certificate and a cash prize of five lakh rupees.

## Sports Awards India 2020

On National Sports Day that was 29 August, 2020, the awardees were received their awards from the President Ram Nath Kovind at a specially organized function from Rashtrapati Bhawan through virtual mode. Let us tell you the day also coincides with the birthday of legendary hockey Olympian, Major Dhyan Chand.

## List of National Sports Awards 2020 Winners

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award 2020

 Name of Sportsperson Discipline Shri Rohit Sharma Cricket Shri Mariyappan T. Para Athletics Ms. Manika Batra Table Tennis Ms. Vinesh Wrestling Ms. Rani Hockey

Rohit Sharma: Records in International Cricket

Dronacharya Award 2020

For Life-time Category

 Name of the Coach Discipline Shri Dharmendra Tiwary Archery Shri Purushotham Rai Athletics Shri Shiv Singh Boxing Shri Romesh Pathania Hockey Shri Krishan Kumar Hooda Kabaddi Shri Vijay Bhalchandra Munishwar Para Powerlifting Shri Naresh Kumar Tennis Shri Om Parkash Dahiya Wrestling

For Regular Category’

 Name of the Coach Discipline Shri Jude Felix Sebastian Hockey Shri Yogesh Malviya Mallakhamb Shri Jaspal Rana Shooting Shri Kuldeep Kumar Handoo Wushu Shri Gaurav Khanna Para-Badminton

3. Arjuna Award

 Name of the Sportsperson Discipline Shri Atanu Das Archery Ms. Dutee Chand Athletics Shri Satwik Sairaj Rankireddy Badminton Shri Chirag Chandrasekhar Shetty Badminton Shri Vishesh Bhriguvanshi Basketball Subedar Manish Kaushik Boxing Ms. Lovlina Borgohain Boxing Shri Ishant Sharma Cricket Ms. Deepti Sharma Cricket Shri Sawant Ajay Anant Equestrian Shri Sandesh Jhingan Football Ms. Aditi Ashok Golf Shri Akashdeep Singh Hockey Ms. Deepika Hockey Shri Deepak Kabaddi Shri Kale Sarika Sudhakar Kho Kho Shri Dattu Baban Bhokanal Rowing Ms. Manu Bhaker Shooting Shri Saurabh Chaudhary Shooting Ms. Madhurika Suhas Patkar Table Tennis Shri Divij Sharan Tennis Shri Shiva Keshavan Winter Sports Ms. Divya Kakran Wrestling Shri Rahul Aware Wrestling Shri Suyash Narayan Jadhav Para Swimming Shri Sandeep Para Athletics Shri Manish Narwal Para Shooting

4. Dhyan Chand Award

 Name of the Sportsperson Discipline Shri Kuldip Singh Bhullar Athletics Ms. Jincy Philips Athletics Shri Pradeep Shrikrishna Gandhe Badminton Ms. Trupti Murgunde Badminton Ms. N. Usha Boxing Shri Lakha Singh Boxing Shri Sukhvinder Singh Sandhu Football Shri Ajit Singh Hockey Shri Manpreet Singh Kabaddi Shri J. Ranjith Kumar Para Athletics Shri Satyaprakash Tiwari Para Badminton Shri Manjeet Singh Rowing Late Shri Sachin Nag Swimming Shri Nandan P Bal Tennis Shri Netarpal Hooda Wrestling

5. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (MAKA) Trophy

 Punjab University, Chandigarh

6. Tenzing Norgay National Adventure Awards 2019

 Name of the Sportsperson Category Ms. Anita Devi Land Adventure Col. Sarfraz Singh Land Adventure Shri Taka Tamut Land Adventure Shri Narender Singh Land Adventure Shri Keval Hiren Kakka Land Adventure Shri Satendra Singh Water Adventure Shri Gajanand Yadava Air Adventure Late Shri Magan Bissa Life Time Achievement

7. Rashtriya Khel Protsahan Puruskar

 Category Entity recommended for Rashtriya Khel Protsahan Puruskar, 2020 Identification and Nurturing of Budding and Young Talent · Lakshya Institute · Army Sports Institute Encouragement to sports through Corporate Social Responsibility Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Ltd. Employment of sportspersons and sports welfare measures Air Force Sports Control Board Sports for Development International Institute of Sports Management (IISM)

## How to Make Money by Blogging?

Hi Friends, Searching for how to make money by blogging or how to earn money from blogging then you are at correct place. We will tell you everything to make money by blogging. As you know that people search on internet before going anywhere on tour, purchasing any product either shop or online like cloths, electronic gadgets, medicine, disease etc.

So all the above discussed thing show that people are totally based on internet and they ask questions : Should i do this? Should i buy it? Should I go there? and if they search any question they get so many result from google (exactly not by google but content provider, blogger, website owner, who write content on that specific search keyword.

And the dependencies on internet is good for those who want earn money from online world by, giving correct answer of users question, suggesting correct gadget, medicine or product for that user is searching.

## How Many Way of Making Money By Blogging?

If you are asking “How many way to make money by blogging?” then there is not a single answer for that question. Earning money by blogging totally depends upon you but still I am suggesting some ideas

2. If you have a big user base then you can get offers from company to promote their product on your website for which they pay a good amount.
3. If you review cloths, shoes, grooming products, gadgets, books, household things, etc then you can sell it yourself and earn money directly or you  can join affiliate program of big companies according to your county Like Amazon-Affiliate Program, Flipkart-Affiliate,  etc.

## What is required for Blogging?

Guys, Before start your blog you need to be determined that you will give time to your blog, You will provide quality content to to your users, you will not copy content from others, you will research about product and content whats your going to sell yourself, or affiliate program or promoting any product of company. Because Being a blogger is not big thing but being a professional honest blogger may give you lot of thing which you can’t expect.

After all above things you should have following

• You should have a domain by that address the user will reach to your content and google also acquire things what you publish. For this if you don’t want invest money then you can go for blogger which is free and also a product of google.

*Before start blogging on Blogger or purchasing domain always remember to select a niche specific domain name on which topic you can write properly.

For example : If you are are going to publish story type content then your domain name should contain story word, if you are going to publish electronic products information your domain must contain electronic. For story blogs your domain should be like allthestory.com it means your domain posts sotry and google will think that your website is made for publishing story and if anybody search for story there is chance to be your website in top 10 or number 1.

• But if you want your own customized blog and domain name of your choice then you need to check your budget for nearby 5000 Inr or \$80 to purchase domain and web hosting for three years. I recommend to buy domain and hosting for three years which will reduce your cost and also development of website or blog, indexing on google, and seo process will take time. So Make Sure that you will not get traffic in starting of 6 months. I recommend hostripples which provide you hosting and domain name at very reasonable price. When I started my website I bought Hosting @ Just Rs 35 Only but my domain is bought from godaddy its also for three year. My Hostripples affiliate link : Click to go.
• After purchasing domain and hosting you have two option either you code and design your blog  or website yourself if you know coding. And if you don’t know coding then need not to worry there is lovely wordpress cms (Content Management Service) available for free you can install on your server and customize your website.
• After Installing WordPress You have to select lite weight responsive theme from wordpress suggested themes or you can purchase other paid theme also but i recommend to start with free themes till you are not generating any income.

## How to write blogs?

After all these things you have a bit tough thing is research. After selecting niche you need to select keywords for which you are going to right. Your keyword should be enough strong to drive traffic it should be searched in google or other search engines like bing, yahoo. etc. Before writing your blog you can search that on the keyword you are going to write content is being searched in google or not or any other keyword suggestion available for your keyword which is being searched in high volume and how many search monthly if searched because its number depend the chance of traffic on your website.

For Researching Keywords Use UBERSUGEST by NEIL PATEL.

After Selecting powerful Keyword you need to write your content and repeat your keywords atleast three times in your blog. Like My Keyword is  “How to Make Money by Blogging?

After Posting 3 to 5 blogs If you can register your website for adsense you can go for this to ADSENSEand follow the instructions of google. If any issue you can comment us on Facebook.

## What is SEO?

SEO is Search Engine Optimization.It is the process that’s proper implementation may lead you rank 1 or in top ranking in search result which leads traffic on your website or blog for free(organic traffic).

Or

SEO, or search engine optimization, is the process of optimizing a website to get targeted traffic by ranking in search engines.

If you can rank highly in search engines like Google for your target key phrases, you’ll be able to get more clicks.

### How Many Types of SEO?

Commonly there is two types of SEO

1. On Page SEO and
2. Off Page SEO

### What is On Page SEO?

On Page SEO totally depends upon you to score high. Some Checklists are given.

1. Its important to select a powerful keyword which is being searched in google and write your content around your keyword. Repeat your keywords 4 to 5 times in your content atleast 1 time in your fist paragraph. Use Keyword As Title, Image file name, image alt.
2. Use Heading tags properly. Use h1, h2 & h3 tags atleast.
3. Use optimized and proper images for your post and name your image file same as your title and also in alt section which also leads traffic to your website.
4. Your Article should content atleast 1000 words because reach content lead traffic.

### What is Off Page SEO?

Off Page Seo is difficult process but if you can contact famous websites and ask to publish your content on their website page with source link which will authorize that your content is good and popular website also refereeing your links. And this process may increase authority of your domain and it leads traffic to your site.

## How to Optimize My Website?

Website Loading speed is also one of the strongest factor to get ranked. After all these process you need to take care page loading speed. To check page speed there is two main websites which explain about your page speed.

These two websites check your page speed. Its also suggest required changes which may increase your page speed.

## How to optimize WordPress Website?

If you are using wordpress for your website management than you can not do more without plugins. So I suggest you to use some cache plugins like WPROCKET Free or Paid, W3 Total Cache, Lite Speed, WP Fastest Cache, Autoptimize, etc.

Use of JavaScript make pages slower so take care when using JavaScripts

## NUTRITION IN PLANTS

Plants play role of producers in nature. are producers, which produce food for all living organic. They utilize sun’s radiant energy & convert into chemical energy. In this way, they also plays role of converter. Plants use sunlight in photosynthesis. During photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight CO2 & H2O convert in to carbohydrate & O2 molecules.

## Mechanism of photosynthesis

$6C{{O}_{2}}+\text{ }\!\!~\!\!\text{ }6{{H}_{2}}O\underset{{Chlorophyll}}{\mathop{{\overset{{Light}}{\mathop{\to }}\,}}}\,{{C}_{6}}{{H}_{{12}}}{{O}_{6}}+\text{ }\!\!~\!\!\text{ }6{{O}_{2}}$

### Steps of photosynthesis :

• Chlorophyll traps the sunlight.
• CO2 & water molecule used as raw material.
• Now the chlorophyll convert the raw material into carbohydrate.
• Oxygen is generated as a by product in this process.

## Requirement of Photosynthesis

Green plants need the following things to prepare their own food :

• Carbon Dioxide : Plants take up carbon dioxide from the atmospheric air through stomata present on the undersurface of the leaves. Guard cells around stomata regulate their opening and closing.
• Chlorophyll : It is the green pigment presents in the leaf. The green colour of leaves is due to the presence of chlorophyll. It is usually present in special cell organelle called chloroplast. Chlorophyll captures solar energy during photosynthesis.
• Sunlight : Sunlight comes from the sun. It is essential as it provides the energy required for the reaction.
• Water and Minerals : Roots of the plants absorb water along with minerals from the soil and transport them to the leaves for photosynthesis.

## Site of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis occurs in the chlorophyll of leaves & sometimes in the stem which are green in colour.

### Importance of photosynthesis :

• It is primary source of food production for all other living organisms.
• It maintain balance oxygen & CO2 in the atmosphere.

## Nutrition in non green plants

Non green plants like bacteria & fungi do not contain chlorophyll. So they cannot prepare their food by photosynthesis. These types of plants are heterotrophic plants.

Parasites : Plants which depends on other living organism for their nutritional requirement known as parasitic plants. Dodder (Amarbel) is a plant parasite which produces special sucking roots called haustoria. For absorption of food from the host plant.

Saprophytes : Plants which depends on dead organic matter for their nutrition, known as saprophytic plants. For example – Bacteria & fungi.

Carnivorous & insectivorous plants : Some plants also take food just like animals. Their food consists of small insects. For example – Pitcher plants.

In a pitcher plant leaf is modified into a pitcher like structure when any insects sits on it, the lid is closed & the insect is trapped in pitcher. It is then digested by the secretion of enzymes.

Symbiosis : It is a partnership between two organisms in which both partner get benefited from each other.

For example : Lichen.

Lichen is a combination of an alga & a fungus. In which, the fungus provides water & minerals to the alga whereas the alga supplies organic food to fungus.

Animals and non-green plants like fungi, etc. cannot manufacture their own food. For their food, they depend upon green plants, directly or indirectly. Therefore, they are called heterotopous and their mode of nutrition is known as heterotrophic nutrition.

## HeterotrophicnutritioninAnimal

All animals are divided into three categories on the basis of their eating habits :

• Herbivorous Animals : Animals which feed directly on plants are called herbivorous animals or herbivores. Examples are cow, buffalo, goat, etc.
• Carnivorous Animals : Animals which eat the flesh of other animals are called carnivorous animals or carnivores. Examples are lion, tiger, etc.
• Omnivorous Animals : Animals which eat both plants and flesh of other animals are called omnivorous animals or omnivorous. Examples are human beings, pig, crow, cockroach, etc.

Read Also : Nutrition in Animals Class 7

## Questions Based on NUTRITION IN PLANTS

Q.1       The plant that feeds & traps on insects is –

(A) Drosera                (B) Sunflower            (C) Cuscuta                (D) Mango

Q.2       The green pigment in the leaves is called –

(A) Chlorophyll          (B) Anthocyanin        (C) Chloroplast           (D) None

Q.3       Which one of the following is a parasite ?

(A) Mushroom            (B) Fungi                    (C) Dodder                 (D) Pitcher’s plant

Q.4       Rhizobium is a good example of –

(A) insectivorous         (B) symbiosis          (C) parasitic                (D) none of these

Q.5       Cuscuta is an example of –

(A) autotroph              (B) parasite               (C) saprophyte            (D) host

Q.6       Autotrophic nutrition found only in –

(A) plants                   (B) animals                 (C) both                     (D) none

Q.7       The plant that feeds and traps on insects is –

(A) venus-fly trap        (B) cuscuta              (C) sunflower              (D) none of these

Q.8       Association of two different organisms in which both are benefited is called –

(A) symbiosis             (B) nutrition            (C) saprophytic           (D) parasitic

Q.9       CO2 & O2 balance in atmosphere is due to –

(A) Photorespiration    (B) Photosynthesis

(C) Respiration            (D) Leaf anatomy

Tick the right statement

Q.10     Animals & plants do not depend on plant for their food.                                 (True/False)

Q.11     Omnivorous eats only flesh.       (True/False)

Q.12     Sucking roots are called haustoria. (True/False)

Q.13     The living organism from which parasitic derives its food called host.         (True/False)

Q.14        Match the column A with column B

Fill in the blank

Q.15     ____________ & ____________ are insectivorous plants.

Q.16     Green plants use _________, ___________ & ____________ to make food.

Q.17     Lichen is the mutual combination of _____________ & ___________.

Q.18     Doddar is an example of ______________ .

Q.1       What is the meaning of autotrophic nutrition ?

Q.2       What is symbiotic relationship ?

Q.3       What are producers ?

Q.4       Which type of nutrition is found in Doddar ?

Q.5       Write down the equation of photo synthesis ?

Q.6       What is the meaning of ‘nutrition’ ?

Q.7       How do algae & fungi benefit each other ?

Q.8       What are insectivores ? Name an insectivorous plant ?

Q.9       What is photosynthesis ?

Q.10     What factors are essential for photosynthesis ?

Q.11     How do plants exchange gases with the atmosphere ?

Q.12     Name the 3 groups of animals on the basis of their eating habits ?

Q.13     Write the meaning of following terms– herbivores, carnivores & omnivores.

Q.14     How do you show that chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis ?

Q.15     Describe symbiotic mode of nutrition with an example ?

Q.16     How dodder takes their nutrients from the host ?

Q.17     Describe the methods of nutrition in non green plants ?

## Soil

Soil is the upper most layer of earth crust.

## Composition of Soil

Mineral Particles : Soil contains mainly three types of particles : Gravel, sand and clay. These particles determine the texture as well as type of the soil.

Inorganic Substances : Soil contains nitrates, sulphates, phosphates and carbonates of potassium, magnesium, sodium and iron. These salts are derived from the parent rock from which the soil is formed.

Organic substances (Humus) : Organic substances are added to the soil by the activities of plants and animals. Their death and decomposition add organic material to the soil. The completely decomposed product of plants and animals is called humus. It makes the soil fertile and improves its water holding capacity. It also encourages the growth of useful microbes in the soil.

Water : All types of soils generally contain water in the spaces present between the soil particles. Water is needed for plant growth. The type of soil determines its water holding capacity or the amount of water contained in that type of soil.

Air : Air is also present in the soil in the spaces between the soil particles. It is needed for respiration of plants as well as for other living organisms in the soil.

## Soil Profile

A side view of the vertical section cut through the soil to the underlying solid through the soil to the underlying solid rocks shows a soil profile (fig.). Most of the soil profiles consist of three layers which are called horizons. These horizons are lettered as A, B and C, the details of which are given below :

### A-Horizon

It is the uppermost layer and is usually the darkest in colour. It contains a lot of humus. Humus makes the soil fertile. Many living microorganisms are also seen in this layer. The soil here is porous, soft and has more water holding capacity than the other layers. The roots of many plants absorb their food from this layer. This layer of soil is also known as the topsoil.

### B-Horizon

It lies under the layer of topsoil and is comparatively harder and more compact. This is also called the subsoil. It is lighter in colour and is often grey or red. It contains more sand and also some stones. Only a few plants or trees have roots long enough to reach the subsoil. Subsoil is not suitable for plant growth as it contains very little organic matter.

### C-Horizon :

It is the lowermost part of the soil and lies beneath the subsoil. It is made of stones and rocks. It contains no organic matter. However, minerals are found in this layer. Beneath this layer lies solid rock called bedrock.

## Soil as a Natural Resource

Soil is the most important natural resource available to man. It is considered a valuable resource because of the following reasons :

### A Base for Growing Crops

It is the base on which all plants grow. All plants get anchorage, minerals, water and air from the soil.

### Storehouse of Minerals

A large number of minerals are present in the soil. These minerals are extracted and made use of in a large number of industries. Some of the common minerals found in the soil are saltpetre, rocksalt, gypsum, bauxite, haematite and calcite.

### Allows Activities that are a source of employment

Soil is used for various purposes. It is used for the construction of buildings, roads, bridges, industries, dams, etc. It is also used for cultivation of crops. All these activities give employment to thousands of people.

### Soil as a Raw Material

Soil is used as a raw material for making bricks, mortar, pottery and other materials. It is also used in building huts and sheds.

### Habitat for Microorganisms :

Soil makes a very good natural habitat for various microorganisms. These microorganisms form humus and make the soil fertile.

Among the animals living in the soil are insects, while ants, grasshoppers, centipedes, millipedes, scorpions, beetles, earthworms and sandworms. Big animals like moles, rats and rabbits build their homes in the soil. Earthworm is popularly known as the farmer’s friend or as nature’s ploughman because of its activities in the soil. It makes burrows into the soil, thus mixing the soil, well, and its excreta called wormcast enriches the soil with nitrogen.

### Water storage :

Rainwater percolates through the soil and accumulates above bedrock to form the water table. This water is pumped out by us for domestic or agricultural uses.

## Soil Erosion

Process of carrying away of topsoil by natural forces like water and wind is called soil erosion.

### Causes of soil Erosion

• Large scale cutting of trees (deforestation)
• Overgrazing by animals in forest.
• Improper farming practices.
• Heavy rains or floods.
• Forest fires.

### Prevention of soil Erosion :

• Grow more trees on a large scale (afforestation)
• Flood control.
• Allow restricted animal grazing.
• Construct bunds.

Read this also : Nutrition in Plants

## Soil Pollution

The contamination of soil with excess use of fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, weedicides etc., and dumping of industrial waste, sewage and garbage is called soil pollution. Any substance which lowers the fertility of the soil is a soil pollutant.

### Causes of soil pollution

• Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
• Dumping of garbage and sewage waste in the soil.
• Chemical wastes from industries, mines, and factories, etc.
• Waste materials likes plastics and metals.

### Preventing soil Pollution

• Dispose off sewage properly.
• Recycle waste.
• Use organic manure or vermicomposting.
• Treat industrial effluents before discharge.

## Types of soil

### Sandy soil

This contains more than 60 per cent sand along with some clay. The water holding capacity of sandy soil is very poor. There is a lot of air present in this type of soil. This type of soil is not suited for the growth of plants as it does not retain water of humus in it and is poor in nutrients. Usually, gram, barley, jowar and maize are grown in sandy soils as rained crops.

### Clayey Soil

It consists mostly of clay particles, the sand particles being far less in proportion. Clayey soil is very sticky and so tilling is difficult. It is usually used for making pots and toys.

This soil has very good water holding capacity. It is badly aerated and is easily water logged. However, clayey soil is rich in minerals which make it good for the growth of plants. This type of soil is good of crops like paddy which required a lot of water.

### Loamy Soil

It consists of a good mixture of sand, clay and humus. It has good water holding capacity. It has sufficient aeration. Plants get sufficient mineral salts from this soil. Therefore, loamy soil is the best soil for growing plants. Crops like wheat, barley, mustard, pulses, cotton, fruits and vegetables can be profitably grown in loamy soils.

## Subject Wise Question Bank For NEET And JEE Main

For the preparation of NEET and JEE Main, question banks have been issued for Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology in all subjects. The State Board has released these on its website.

## Practice papers for NEET and JEE Main :

NEET and JEE are conducted for admission in undergraduate courses in medical and engineering respectively. A new date for both these exams has also been announced.

These exams are to be held in July and August. That is, students still have enough time to prepare. During this time, it is very important for you to practice mock test, question bank. Keeping this in mind, a State Board has issued subject wise question papers.
By the way, this question bank has been issued by Gujarat Board. But lakhs of students from all over the country who appear in both exams can take advantage of these question papers. It is available for you for free.

Gujarat Board has released practice papers for Maths, Physics, Chemistry and Biology .. all subjects. Subject wise question papers at both 10th and 12th level have been uploaded by Gujarat Board on its official website.

Let us know that these papers will also work for the candidates who have given the Gujarat Common Entrance Test (GUJCET 2020).

Read Also : Free NEET and JEE Lectures

## NUTRITION IN ANIMALS

As animals do not have chlorophyll, they can’t prepare their food own. They obtain their food directly or indirectly from plants. Animals may be herbivores, carnivores or omnivores.

## Holozoic nutrition

In this type of nutrition, animals take in solid food such as fruits, vegetable & meat, etc.

Five steps in the process of holozoic nutrition in animals. are –

(1)  Ingestion

(2)  Digestion

(3)  Absorption

(4) Assimilation

(5)  Egestion

Nutrition in Amoeba : Amoeba is a unicellular animal. It eats microscopic plants & animals that float in water.

The complete process of nutrition in amoeba is as follows –

Ingestion : An amoeba ingests food by using its pseudopodia. When a food particles comes near an amoeba, it ingests this food particle by surrounding it with its pseudopodia. The pseudopodia close to form a small cavity called food vacuole.

Digestion : The food is digested in the food vacuole by digestive enzymes.

Absorption : The digested food present in the food vacuole is absorbed directly into the cytoplasm of amoeba by diffusion. The digested food just spreads out from the food vacuole into the cytoplasm of amoeba cell.

Assimilation : Food absorbed by amoeba is used to obtain energy for maintaining life process.

Egestion : When a sufficient amount of undigested food collects inside amoeba, then its cell membrane suddenly ruptures at any place & the undigested food is thrown of the cell.

## Nutrition in Human

• Nutrition in human is holozoic. The food ingested through the mouth passes through a number of organ in our body which constitute the alimentary canal.
• The alimentary canal along with digestive glands known as digesttive system.
• The digestive system of human consists of following organs –

Mouth : It is a transvers slit & also called opening of alimentary canal. Mouth opens into buccle cavity.

Buccle cavity : Mouth open into a cavity which contain teeth, tongue & salivary glands. Salivary glands secrete saliva which contain salivary amylase enzyme & convert the starch into simple sugar.

Teeth : Teeth are hard structures held in sockets of the jaws. Teeth cut, chew and break food into smaller pieces.

Tongue : Tongue is the organ used for taste. It contains taste buds to distinguish whether a type of food is sweet, sour, bitter or hot (figure). It also helps in rolling and pushing the food into the pharynx. It mixes the saliva with the food and also helps us in speaking.

Oesophagus or Food Pipes : It is a connecting tube between the mouth and stomach. The food is pushed down towards the stomach by the movement of the muscles of the food pipe.

Stomach : Stomach is a J-shaped bag-like structure made of muscles. The stomach secretes gastric juice and hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid kills microorganisms and provides an acidic medium for effective digestion. In the stomach food is throughly mixed with the gastric juice secreted by the gastric glands present in the stomach. The gastric juice contians an enzyme called pepsin which helps to break down proteins into simpler substances.

Small Intestine : It is a coiled tube and is about 7 metres in length. It consists of three parts, namely dueodenum, jejunum and ileum. In the small intestine the food is mixed with bile juice and pancreatic juice. These are secreted by the liver and the pancreas, respectively. Bile juice breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. The pancreatic juice breaks down starch into simple sugar and proteins into amino acids. Digestion of all the components of food gets completed here and the end products are ready for absorption.

Absorption of food occurs through millions of small projections in the inner walls of the part of small intestine called ileum. These projections are known as villi. The incorporation of absorbed nutrients into the cell components is called assimilation.

The food that remains undigested and unabsorbed then enters the large intestine.

Large intestine : It is the last organ of the digestive system. It is about 1.5 m in length. It consists of three parts, namely caecum, colon and rectum. It helps in absorbing water and in removing undigested solid wastes from the body in the form of faeces through an opening called anus.

Anus : It is the last part of the alimentary canal. Its main function is to expel solid faceces out of the body.

Digestive Glands :

• Salivary Glands : There are three pairs of salivary glands located in the mouth. Salivary glands secrete saliva which contains amylase enzyme. Amylase works on starch and converts it into simple sugar.
• Liver : It is reddish brown gland and is located in the upper part of the abdomen. It secretes bile juice that is stored in gallbladder. The bile helps in breaking down fat into simpler substances.
• Pancreas : It is a cream-coloured gland and is located just below the stomach. It secretes pancreatic juice into a small intestine. It acts on carbohydrates and protein and converts them into simpler substances.

## Nutrition in a ruminant

A ruminant is an herbivours animal which regurgitates its food & digest it in step. For example- Cow, goats, sheep etc.

The 2 steps involved in digestion of ruminants are –

1. The ruminant first eats the foods & regurgitates a semi digested food called cud.
2. The ruminant then eats the cud when at rest. This process of eating the cud is called ruminating.

Ruminants have a special stomach with 4 chambers, which are as follows –

• Rumen : This is the largest chamber of the stomach. It is namely used for storing food.
• Reticulum : It helps in moving the food bakc to the mouth when needed.
• Omasum : This is the smallest chamber of the stomach. Its main function is to absorb excess water.
• Abomasum : This is a true stomach where gastric juices are secreted to help digestion. Here the food is digested just like in the human stomach.

### Digestion of food in ruminants

The ruminants mostly eat grasses and leaves which are rich in cellulose, The ruminants can digest cellulose becuase celluose-digesting bacteria and protozoa are present in their stomach.

Half-chewed grass travels from the mouth to the first chamber of the stomach called rumen where it is acted upon by bacteria and microorganism. It then goes into the reticulum from where it is returned to the mouth as cud for through chewing called rumination. It enters a third chamber called omasum. Here it is broken down into still smaller pieces. Finally, it enters the fourth chmaber called abomasum where enzymes act upon it and digestion is completed. It is finally sent to the small intestine where the absorption of the nutrients takes place.

Read this Also : Nutrition in Plants Class 7

## Exercise Based on Nutrition in Animals

Exercise : 1

Single Choice Question

1. Digestion within a digestive tract is –

(A) incomplete

(B) extracellular

(C) the same as absorption

(D) an irreversible process

2. Which of the following regioins of the alimentary canal of man does not secrete a digestive enzyme ?

(A) Oesophagus

(B) Stomach

(C) Duodenum

(D) Mouth

3. A digestive enzyme, salivary amylase, in the saliva begin digestion of –

(A) protein                  (B) nucleic acids

(C) facts                      (D) carbohydrates

4. If you chew on a piece of bread long enough, it will begin to taste sweet because –

(A) maltase is breaking down maltose

(B) lipases are forming fatty acids

(C) amylase is breaking down starches to disaccharides

(D) disaccharides are forming glucose

5. Saliva has the enzyme –

(A) pepsin                   (B) ptyalin

(C) trypsin                  (D) rennin

6. Pepsin digests –

(A) proteins in stomach

(B) carbohydrates in duodenum

(C) proteins in duodenum

(D) fats in ileum

7. Chief function of HCl is –

(A) to maintain a low pH to prevent growth of micro-organisms

(B) to facilitate absorption

(C) to maintain low pH to activate pepsinogen to form pepsin

(D) to dissolve enzyme secreted in stomach

8. If the stomach did not produce any hydrochloric acid, which enzyme will not function ?

(A) Ptyalin                  (B) Trypsin

(C) Pepsin                   (D) Collagenase

9. Chief function of bile is –

(A) to digest fat by enzymatic action

(B) to emulsify fat for digestion

(C) to eliminate waste product

(D) to regulate process of digestion

10. Where is bile produced ?

(A) In gall bladder       (B) In blood

(C) In liver                  (D) In spleen

11. Ileum is –

(A) First part of the small intestine

(B) Middle part of the small intestine

(C) Last part of the small intestine

(D) Not a part of the small intestine

12. Largest gland in human body is –

(A) liver                      (B) pancreas

(C) pituitary                (D) thyroid

13. Which of the following organs produces bile ?

(A) liver                     (B) pancreas

14. Which of the following is not a part of nutrition-

(A) digestion               (B) absorption

(C) excretion               (D) assimilation

15. Which of the organs produces bile ?

(A) liver                     (B) pancreas

16. An amoeba ingests food by –

(A) cilia                      (B) tentacles

(C) pseudopodia          (D) feeding tube

17. The walls of the large intestine absorb –

(A) cellulose               (B) water

(C) digested food         (D) digested proteins

18. Small intestine have this to increase the surface area for absorption –

(A) villi                      (B) glands

(C) liver                      (D) pancreas

19. Juice secreated by liver is –

(A) bile                       (B) gastric

(C) pancreatic             (D) acid

20. Number of chambers in the stomach of ruminats is –

(A) 4         (B) 3         (C) 2        (D) 1

21. The part of digestive system which helps in mixing food with saliva is –

(A) teeth                     (B) oesophagus

(C) tongue                   (D) lips

### Fill in the Blank

22. Salivary amylase works on ………………… .

23. Incisor teeth help in …………………. the food.

24. The liver and ………………….. are used for procuring food.

25. In amoeba ……………… are used for procuring food.

26. There are …………………. number of teeth in a temporary set of teeth.

Exercise : 2

1. Name the organs that make the alimentary canal.
2. Mention the various steps involved in the process of nutrition.
3. Which type of carbohydrate cannot be digested by humans ?
4. What is the role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach ?
5. Why do we call animals heterotrophs ?
6. Name the type of nutrition in amoeba.
7. Which organs help to sense the different taste ?
8. Differentiate between ingestion and egestion.
9. What is the function of villi ?

1. What happens to digested food after absorption
2. How does an amoeba capture its food ?
3. What are villi ? What is their location and function ?
4. Which is the largest chamber of the ruminant stomach ? What is its role ?
5. What is the juice secreted by the liver called ? What does it do ?
6. What happens to food in the small intestine ?
7. What is pancreas and where is it located ?
8. Define intracellular digestion. Give two examples of animals where this type of digestion take places.

1. Draw a diagram of the tongue to show the location of various taste buds.
2. Give an account of the various modes in which animals obtain food.
3. Explain the process of digestion in ruminants.
4. Which digestive juice is secreted in the mouth ? What enzyme does it contain and what is its function ?
5. Draw a labelled digram of the alimentary cannal of humans.
6. What are digestive glands ? Name three such glands that are present in the human body. What are their secretions called ?
7. What is the role of stomach in the digestion process ?
8. What happens to the food in the small intestine ?

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