All the living organisms including human beings perform a number of activities such as nutrition, respiration, excretion, growth and reproduction. These activities are characteristics of living organisms, and through such activities they maintain their lives. These maintenance function of living organisms are known as life processes.
The basic functions performed by living beings to sustain themselves are called life processes.
How Many Types of Life Processes?
Criteria to define something is alive
- Growth and Development
- Movement and Locomotion
Mode of nutrition
Nutrition process is consuming food from organisms and unionization of food to produce energy and this process is called nutrition. Nutrition is a very important process, which help to manage life process by obtaining energy from various sources for living beings.
Nutrients are inorganic as well as organic substances which the organisms obtain from their surroundings in order to synthesize their body constituents and use them as a source of energy.
The process of intake of nutrients and its utilization by an organism in various biological activities.
A process to transfer a source of energy from outside the body of the organism (food), to the inside is called nutrition.
There are various types of nutrients on the basis of function they perform : e.g.
Energy foods : Carbohydrates and fats.
Body building foods : Proteins and mineral salts.
Regulating foods : Vitamins and minerals.
The different component of food that have distinct functions like providing energy, materials for body building, maintenance & regulation of metabolism are called nutrient.
For example – Proteins, Minerals, Vitamin, Carbohydrates, fats.
Respiration is a biochemical process of enzyme including oxidative breakdown of organic compounds inside living cells releasing energy in the form of ATP.
The process that involves breakdown of respiratory substrates through oxidation and release of usable energy is Respiration.
Respiration includes the exchange of gases as well as the burning of food. Animals have a well defined respiratory system for respiration.
Glucose is broken down to extract energy. It is a redox reaction which can take place with or without oxygen and takes place in mitochondria of the cell and releases energy in the form of ATP.
Respiration is mainly of two types- aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.
The process in which the substances absorbed or synthesized in one part of the body are carried to other parts of the body.
Transportation is the movement of materials from one part to another, usually from the region of their availability to the region of their use storage or elimination.
Excretion is the elimination of metabolic waste products from the body.
The process involved in removal of the excess or toxic wastes from the body.
Control and Coordination
The process which helps the living organisms to receive information from the surroundings and behave accordingly in order to survive in the changing environment around them.
Control is the power of restrain & regulation by which a process can be started, showed down or stopped.
Coordination is orderly working of different but inter related parts to perform one or more activities very smoothly.
There are 2 modes of control & coordination, chemical & nervous. Plant do not have a nervous system. They possess only chemical controls & coordination.
Animals have both chemical & nervous control & coordination.
Growth and Development
Permanent increase in the size of the organisms is called growth. The whole series of changes which an organism goes through during its life cycle, is called development.
7. Movement and Locomotion
Chemical reactions which take place within cells or organisms during various vital activities are called biochemical reactions.
Metabolism is a word used to describe the sum total of all the chemical and physical changes that are constantly taking place in living matter and are necessary for life. The word metabolite refers to a substance which undergoes various changes during metabolism. For example, carbon dioxide and water are metabolites used in the process of photosynthesis.
Read : Nutrition
Difference between Plants and Animals Life Processes
Following are the important difference between the life processes of plants and animals.
|Plants are green in color due to the presence of chlorophyll and provide oxygen to the atmosphere.||The animals cannot prepare their own food and consist of a specialized system to carry out different life processes.|
|Plants are rooted in the ground and cannot move from one place to another.||Animals can freely move from one place to another.|
|Plants are autotrophs and can prepare their own food.||Animals are heterotrophs and depend on plants and other animals for their food.|
|Plants store food in the form of starch. They do not have any digestive system.||Animals have a well-developed digestive system and can store their food in the form of glycogen.|
|The respiration in plants takes place through the stomata.||Exchange of gases occurs through lungs, gills, skin, etc.|
|The reproduction usually takes place asexually through budding, vegetative propagation, etc. They also reproduce sexually by the process called pollination.||The animals reproduce sexually.|
|Response to Stimulus|
|They show response to stimuli like light and touch. They are less sensitive because they do not have sense organs.||They have a well-developed nervous system and respond to any stimulus within fractions of seconds.|
Important Asked Questions: Life Processes
What do you understand by life processes?
The basic important activities performed by an organism to withstand life are called life processes. These help an organism to survive.
What are the different life processes in human beings?
The different life processes in human beings include-nutrition, respiration, digestion, excretion, reproduction, metabolism, and transportation. These processes are very important to carry out regular life activities.
Which life processes can be observed in plants?
The life processes carried out in plants are slightly different from those observed in animals. The life processes in plants include- nutrition, transportation, excretion, respiration, reproduction, sensitivity, and growth.
What is the importance of life processes?
Life processes are important to carry out daily life activities. They help to produce energy and maintain homeostasis in the body. The life processes help a body survive with the changes in the environment. A slight disturbance in any of the life processes disturbs the entire functioning of the body.
What are the common life processes in both plants and animals?
The common life processes in plants and animals include- respiration, growth, nutrition, transportation, reproduction and excretion. These are carried out by all the plants and animals, digestion being an exception.
How does respiration help in carrying out life processes?
The process of respiration utilizes food to produce energy. It oxidizes carbohydrates to produce energy. The energy released is stored in the form of ATP. Mitochondria is the site of respiration.