WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT: Any material which cannot be used in the form in which it is produced is called a waste. According to their physical state, waste can be classified into 3 categories – Solid waste, liquid waste & gaseous waste.
The impurities present in wastewater are called contaminants. This wastewater is called sewage.
In this post, you will know about Waster Water Management, Source of Water, Sewage Treatment, use of treated water, Waste Water, and Disease.
Source of Waste Water
There are many sources of Waster Water but some main sources are given below.
Domestic Waste Water: It includes all kinds of wastes like human excreta, food waste, soaps, detergents, oil, animal excreta, urine, etc.
Agricultural Waste Water: The wastewater generated from farms and agricultural fields contains harmful pesticides, weedicides, and animal wastes.
Industrial Waste Water: The waste water generated from various industries contains harmful chemicals. The discharge of industrial wastewater is called Industrial effluent.
Petroleum Oil: The leakage of petroleum oil into the sea during drilling and shipping pollutes seawater. The oil spill is caused due to release of oil into rivers and oceans knowingly or unknowingly.
Mining: Wastewater is also generated as a result of mining activities.
Construction Activity: A lot of wastewater is generated during various stages of building houses, homes, malls, multiplexes, etc.
Sewage Treatment Plant
There are three processes that are involved in treating wastewater before it is discharged into the water reservoirs. These processes are :
- Primary treatment
- Secondary treatment
- Tertiary treatment
- It is the first stage and is called primary treatment. The wastewater is passed through rotating screens to remove large objects.
- The water is then passed through a grit and sand tank to remove small stones and pebbles.
- The soiled wastes such as faeces settle down at the bottom of the tank and are removed with the help of a scraper. This is a sludge
- The sludge can be used for the production of biogas to be used as fuel or for producing electricity. Light materials float on top and are known as scum. The scum is removed with the help of a skimmer.
- It is the second stage and is called secondary treatment. The treatment at this stage involves pumping air into the clarified water to help aerobic bacteria to grow. The bacteria decompose the suspended waste.
- The activity of the bacteria produces decomposed organic material which settles down at the bottom of the tank as activated sludge. It is passed through sand drying beds to separate the solid material out of it. This solid waste can be used as manure.
- It is the third stage and is called tertiary treatment. The treated water now undergoes chemical treatment.
- The water is disinfected with chemicals like chlorine or may be exposed to ultraviolet rays to kill disease-causing organisms.
- It can also be treated with ozone gas. The water is then discharged into the distribution system. A schematic diagram of a wastewater treatment plant is shown in
Use of Treated Water
The treated water which is obtained from the sewage treatment plants is used for irrigating fields, lawns, and for aquaculture. In Kolkata, the treated water is used for fisheries and growing crops and vegetables. The treated water is finally released in streams and rivers.
How We Can Reduce Sewage Generation?
- Leakage in sewer lines should be checked and repaired regularly.
- Use flushes with low capacity to reduce flushed water.
- Wastewater from basins, sinks, and washing machines can be used again for watering plants or wiping floors
- Never pour household products such as cooking oil, fat, butter, plastic, etc. down the drain. These materials can block the pipes and sewage may start overflowing in your home or at public places.
- Newer throw paints, solvents, insecticides, automobile oils, and medicines down the drain as they may kill microbes that help to purify water.
- Used tea leaves, solid food remains, sanitary towels, toys, etc. should not be thrown in the wastewater pipe because these materials may choke the drains
- Ask civic authorities to cover the open drains of your area.
- Plant eucalyptus trees all along with sewage ponds as these plants absorb surplus water rapidly.
Waste Water and Disease
Drinking of waste & contaminated water cause many human diseases in India
People consuming contaminated water may suffer from diseases like gastroenteritis, dysentery, typhoid, cholera, meningitis, and hepatitis.
Read Also: Nutrition in Plants
Waste Water Management: FAQ
What is Waste?
Any material which cannot be used in the form in which it is produced is called a waste.
What is sewage?
Sewage is the place where all the Waste liquid material becomes store.
What is scum?
A layer of something unpleasant or unwanted that forms on top of a liquid are called scum.
Why are bacteria used in sewage treatment plants?
Microbes purify the water so bacteria used to purify water.
What is the function of screens in a water treatment plant?
What is sludge and how do we use it?
What problem do we face with open drainage?
What is an oil spill and how is it harmful to aquatic life?
What are the main constituents of sewage?
What is the function of a treatment plant?
Why butter and oil should not be released in the drainage?
Why is it harmful to discharge untreated sewage into the rivers?