Solved Examples of Electricity

Solved Examples of Electricity

Example 1: A TV set shoots out a beam of electrons. The beam current is 10mA.

(a) How many electrons strike the TV screen in each second ?

(b)  How much charge strikes the screen in a minute?

Solution:       Beam current,    I = 10 µA = 10 ×10–6A

Time, t = 1 s

So,

(a) Charge flowing per second,

Q = I × t = 10 × 10–6A × 1s = 10 × 10–6C

We known,

Charge on an electron = 1.6 × 10–19C

So, No. of electrons striking the TV screen per second =

10×10-6C1.6×1019C

= 6.25 × 1014

(b) Charge striking the screen per min

= (6.25 × 1014 × 60) × 1.6 × 10–19C

= 6.0 × 10–3C

Example 2: A current of 10A exists in a conductor. Assuming that this current is entirely due to the flow of electrons (a) find the number of electrons crossing the area of cross section per second, (b) if such a current is maintained for one hour, find the net flow of charge.

Sol.       Current,      I = 10 A

Charge flowing through the circuit

in one second, = 10 C (∴

ChargeTime

= Current)

(a) We know, Charge on an electron

= 1.6 × 10–19C

So, No. of electrons crossing per second

10C1.6×1019

= 6.25 × 1019

(b)  Net flow of charge in one hour

= Current × Time

= 10 A × 1 h

10 A × (1 × 60 × 60 s) = 36000 C

Example 3: A current of 5.0 A flows through a circuit for 15 min. Calculate the amount of electric charge that flows through the circuit during this time.

Solution.       Given :        Current, I = 5.0 A

Time, t = 15 min. = 15 × 60 s = 900 s

Then, Charge that flows through the circuit,

Q = Current × Time

= 5.0A × 900 s

= 4500 A.s = 4500 C

Example 4: A piece of wire is redrawn by pulling it until its length is doubled. Compare the new resistance with the original value.

Sol. Volume of the material of wire remains same. So, when length is doubled, its area of cross-section will get halved. So, if l and a are the original length and area of cross-section of wire,

Original value of the resistance,  R =

ρ×a

and,

New value of the resistance,

R’ =

ρ×2a/2=ρa×4=4R

Example 5: Calculate the resistance of 100 m long copper wire. The diameter of the wire is 1 mm.

Solution:       Using the relationship,

R = \displaystyle \rho \times \frac{\ell }{a}=\rho \times \frac{\ell }{{\pi {{r}^{2}}}}$

We have,           r = \frac{1}{2}$ mm = 0.5 × 10–3 m

R = \frac{{1.6\times {{{10}}^{{-6}}}ohm.cm\,\times 100m}}{{3.141\times \,{{{(0.5\,\times \,{{{10}}^{{-3}}}m)}}^{2}}}}$

R = 2.04 ohm

Example 6: If four resistances each of values 1 ohm are connected in series.  Calculate equivalent resistance.

 Solution: In series,

R1 = R2 = R3 = R2 = 1 ohm

putting values, we get,

Rs = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4

 Example 7: Suppose a 6-volt battery is connected across a lamp whose resistance is 20 ohm the current in the circuit is 0.25 A, calculate the value of the resistance from the resistor which must be used.

Solution:       Lamp resistance,                         R = 20 ohm

Extra resistance from resistor,      R = ?

(to be calculated)

For R and R’ in series,

Total circuit resistance,                Rs = R + R’

From relation, (Ohm’s law)         Rs = \frac{V}{I}$

Putting values, we get,          Rs = \frac{6}{{0.25}}$

= 24 ohm

But                                     Rs = R + R’

Hence                                 R’ = Rs – R

= 24 – 20 = 4 ohm

Extra resistance from resistor,

            R’ = 4 ohm.

Example 8: A resistance of 6 ohms is connected in series with another resistance of 4 ohms. A potential difference of 20 volts is applied across the combination. Calculate the current through the circuit and potential difference across the 6 ohm resistance.

Solution: For better understanding we must drawn a proper circuit diagram. It is shown in fig.

electricity solved examples
electricity solved examples

We use proper symbols for electrical components.Resistances are shown connected in series, with 20 V battery across its positive and negative terminals. Direction of current flow is also shows  from positive terminal of the battery towards its negative terminal.

Potential difference,  V = 20 V

Potential difference across 6 Ω,

V1 = ? (to be calculated)

Total circuit  resistance = 10 Ω

From Ohm’s law,           Rs = \frac{V}{{{{R}_{S}}}}$

Circuit current,         I = 2 ampere or (2A)

Putting values, we get,     V1 = 2 × 6 = 12 volts

Potential difference across 6 Ω resistance = 12 V

 Example 9: Two resistances are connected in series as shown in the diagram.

example 9
example 9

(i) What is the current through the 5 ohm resistance ?

(ii) What is the current through R ?

(iii) What is the value of R ?

(iv) What is the value of V ?

 

Solution:       First resistance,                            R1 = 5 Ω

(i) Current through 5 ohm resistance,  I = ?

(ii) Current through R,                      I = ?

(iii) Value of second resistance,          R = ?

(iv) Potential difference applied by the battery,

V = ?

(i) From Ohm’s law, R = \frac{V}{I}$

We have,                 I = \displaystyle \frac{V}{R}=\frac{{{{V}_{1}}}}{{{{R}_{1}}}}$

I =\frac{{10}}{5}$= 2 ampere

Current through 5 Ω resistance = 2 ampere (2A).

(ii)       Since R is in series with 5 Ω, same current will flow through it,

Current through R = 2 A.

 

(iii) From Ohm’s law,    R = \frac{V}{I}$

R2 = \frac{{{{V}_{2}}}}{I}$

R2 =\frac{6}{2}$= 3 ohms

Resistance R has value = 3 ohms.

(iv)  From relation, V = V1 + V2

V = 10 + 6 = 16 volts

V = 16 volts

Example 10: Resistors R1, R2 and R3 having values 5Ω , 10Ω, and 30Ω respectively are connected in parallel across a battery of 12 volt. Calculate (a) the current through each resistor (b) the total current in the circuit and (c) the total circuit resistance.

Solution: Here,

R1 = 5W, R2 = 10W, R3 = 30 W, V = 12 V

(a) I1 = ?                  I2 = ?             I3 = ?

(b) I = I1 + I2 + I3 = ?

(c) Rp = ?

(a) From relation, (Ohm’s law),    R = \frac{V}{I}$

I = \frac{V}{R}$

Putting values, we get,    I1 = \frac{V}{{{{R}_{1}}}}$ = \frac{{12}}{5}$=2.4 A

I2 = \frac{V}{{{{R}_{2}}}}$ = \frac{{12}}{{10}}$ = 1.2 A

I3 \frac{V}{{{{R}_{3}}}}=\frac{{12}}{{30}}$ = 0.4 A

(b) Total current,            I = I1 + I2 + I3

I = 2.4 + 1.2 + 0.4 = 4 A

(c) From relation = \frac{1}{{{{R}_{p}}}}=\frac{1}{{{{R}_{1}}}}+\frac{1}{{{{R}_{2}}}}+\frac{1}{{{{R}_{3}}}}$

\frac{1}{{{{R}_{p}}}}=\frac{1}{5}+\frac{1}{{10}}+\frac{1}{{30}}=\frac{{6+3+1}}{{30}}=\frac{{10}}{{30}}$

Rp = 3 ohm.

Example 11:    Resistors R1 = 10 ohms, R2 = 40 ohms, R3 = 30 ohms, R4 = 20 ohms, R5 = 60 ohms and a 12 volt battery is connected as shown. Calculate :

(a) the total resistance and

(b) the total current flowing in the circuit.

Solution: The situation is shown in (figure).

For R1 and R2 in parallel

\frac{1}{{{{R}_{{{{p}_{1}}}}}}}=\frac{1}{{{{R}_{1}}}}+\frac{1}{{{{R}_{2}}}}=\frac{1}{{10}}+\frac{1}{{40}}=\frac{{4+1}}{{40}}=\frac{5}{{40}}=\frac{1}{8}$

or        {{R}_{{{{P}_{1}}}}}$ = 8 ohm

For R3, R4 and R5 is parallel

\displaystyle \frac{1}{{{{R}_{{{{p}_{2}}}}}}}=\frac{1}{{{{R}_{3}}}}+\frac{1}{{{{R}_{4}}}}+\frac{1}{{{{R}_{5}}}}

=\frac{1}{{30}}+\frac{1}{{20}}+\frac{1}{{60}}=\frac{{2+3+1}}{{60}}=\frac{6}{{60}}=\frac{1}{{10}}$

or        {{R}_{{{{P}_{2}}}}}$ = 10 ohm.

(a) For  and {{R}_{{{{P}_{2}}}}}$ in series.

Total resistance,                  R =  +

Putting values, we get,         R = 8 + 10 = 18

Total resistance,                 R = 18 ohms. Ans.

(b) From relation, (Ohm’s law)   R = \frac{V}{I}$

We have,                                         I = \frac{V}{R}$

Putting values, we get,    I = \frac{{12}}{{18}}$ = \frac{2}{3}$ = 0.67

Total current,                    I = 0.67 A.      Ans

Example 12: In the circuit diagram given below. Find

(i) total resistance of the circuit

(ii) total current flowing in the circuit

(iii) potential difference across R1

Solution: (i)  For total resistance

8 W and 12 Ω are connected in parallel.

Their equivalent resistance comes in series with 7.2 Ω resistance as shown in fig.

With 7.2 Ω and 4.8 Ω in series

Rs = 7.2 + 4.8 = 12 Ω

Total circuit resistance  = 12 ohms.

(ii)  For total current

Total circuit resistance,          R = 12 ohm

Potential difference applied,   V = 6 V

I = ?

From Ohm’s law                  R = \frac{V}{I}$

I = \frac{V}{R}$

I = \frac{6}{{12}}$ = 0.5

Total circuit current = 0.5 A               Ans.

(iii) For potential difference across R1

R = \frac{V}{I}$

V = IR

V1 = IR1

V1 = 0.5 × 7.2

= 3.6 V

Potential difference across,  V1 = 3.6 V.   Ans

Example 13: Three resistances are connected as shown in diagram through the resistance 5 ohms, a current of 1 ampere is flowing :

(i) What is the current through the other two resistors?

(ii) What is the potential difference (p.d.) across AB and across AC ?

(iii) What is the total resistance.

Solution:

(i) For current in parallel resistors

For same potential difference across two parallel resistors,

V = I1R1 = I2R2         i.e.      \frac{{{{I}_{1}}}}{{{{I}_{2}}}}=\frac{{{{R}_{2}}}}{{{{R}_{1}}}}$

Current divides itself  in inverse ration of the resistances.

Also total current,     I = I1 + I2

\displaystyle \frac{{{{I}_{1}}}}{{{{I}_{2}}}}=\frac{{{{R}_{2}}}}{{{{R}_{1}}}}=\frac{{15}}{{10}}=\frac{3}{2}$

Also,               I1 + I2 = 1 amp.

I1 = 0.6A, I2 = 0.4 A.    Ans.

Current is 0.6 A through 10 Ω

(ii) For p.d. across AB

From Ohm’s law,    R = \frac{V}{I}$,  V = IR

V = 1 × 5 = 5V

P.D. across AB                      = 5 V. Ans

For parallel combination of 10 Ω and 15 Ω P.D. across BC, V = I1R1 = 0.6 × 10 = 6 V

P.D. across AC = P.D. across AB + P.D. across BC.

= 5 + 6 = 11 V

(iii) For total circuit resistance

For 10 Ω and 15 Ω in parallel

Rp = \frac{{10\times 15}}{{10+15}}=\frac{{150}}{{25}}$= 6 Ω

Total resistance = 5 + 6 = 11 W

Total circuit resistance = 11 Ω. Ans

\left[ {Also\,R\,=\,\frac{V}{I}\,=\,\frac{{11}}{1}\,=\,11\Omega } \right]$

Example 14: In the diagram shown below (Fig.), the cells and the ammeter both have negligible resistance. The  resistors are identical. With the switch K open, the ammeter reads 0.6 A. What will be the ammeter reading when the switch is closed ?

Solution: Let the cell have potential difference V and each resistor have resistance R

With key open

Potential difference,  = V

Circuit resistance of two parallel resistors,

{{R}_{{{{P}_{1}}}}}=\frac{R}{{{{n}_{1}}}}=\frac{R}{2}\Omega $

Circuit current,               I1 = 0.6 A

With key closed

Potential difference   = V

Circuit resistance of three parallel resistors,

{{R}_{{{{P}_{2}}}}}=\frac{R}{{{{n}_{2}}}}=\frac{R}{3}\Omega $

Circuit current,           I2 = ?

For same potential difference V

V = I1{{R}_{{{{P}_{1}}}}}$ = I2{{R}_{{{{P}_{2}}}}}$

I2 = \frac{{{{I}_{1}}{{R}_{{{{P}_{1}}}}}}}{{{{R}_{{{{P}_{2}}}}}}}$

I2 = 0.6 × \frac{R}{2}\times \frac{3}{R}$  = 0.9

Circuit current with closed key = 0.9 A.

Example 15:    In the circuit diagram.

Find (i) total resistance

(ii) current shown by the ammeter A.

Solution: 3 Ω and 2 Ω in series become 5 Ω. Equivalent circuit is shown in fig.

(i) For total resistance

R1 = R2 = 5 Ω are in parallel.

Rp = \frac{{5\times 5}}{{5+5}}$ = \frac{{25}}{{10}}$ = 2.5 Ω

Circuit resistance = 2.5 ohm

(ii) For circuit current

Potential difference,  V = 4 V

Circuit resistance            Rp = 2.5 Ω

Circuit current,         I = ? (to be calculated)

From Ohm’s law,           R = \frac{V}{I}$

I = \frac{V}{{{{R}_{P}}}}$

I = \frac{4}{{2.5}}$ = 1.6 A

Circuit current                  = 1.6 A

Ammeter reads circuit current 1.6 A

Example 16: For the circuit shown in the following diagram what is the value of

(i) current through 6 Ω resistor

(ii) potential difference (p.d.) across 12 Ω.

Solution: (i) For current through 6 Ω  

Current from 4 V battery flows through first parallel branch having 6 Ω and 3 Ω in series.

Current in this branch

I = \frac{4}{{6+3}}$= \frac{4}{9}$ = 0.44 A

(ii) For p.d. across 12 Ω

Current through second parallel branch

I = \frac{4}{{12+3}}$ = \frac{4}{{15}}$ A

P.D. across 12 W,     V = \frac{4}{{15}}$ × 12 = 3.2 V.