History of Metals and Non Metals

History of Metals and Non Metals

Aluminium was first extracted in 1827 from aluminium chloride by treating it with sodium

AlCl3 + 3Na → Al + 3NaCl. But the process was very expensive. Impressed by its properties, metallurgists all over the world attempted to develop a process for the commercial production of aluminium. But it remained a costly metal till 1886, when Heroult in France and Hall in USA succeeded in developing independently a process for the extraction of aluminium. Thus began large-scale production of aluminium in several parts of the world. Hall-Heroult process came into extensive use towards the end of the nineteenth century.

  1. Electrolytic reduction of alumina: Hall-Heroult process

Alumina is mixed with cryolite and the mixture is melted in an iron cell.

Alumina melts at 2303 K. It is a bad conductor of electricity. But when mixed with cryolite and some calcium fluoride, the mixture becomes a good conductor of electricity, and melts at 1173-1223 K. The cryolite thus considerably reduces the’ energy cost. The iron cell is lined inside with gas carbon, which serves as cathode. Carbon rods act as anode. The electrolyte, thus, contains Na+, Al3+, F and O2– ions.

On passing electric current, AP+ ions are discharged at the cathode and the 022ions, at the anode.

Al3+ + 3e → Al (at cathode)

2O2– → O2 + 4e  (at anode)

Some quantity of oxygen formed in the reaction escapes and some reacts with the anode to form CO2, Thus, carbon anode burns away due to its reaction with oxygen.

C + O2 → CO2

Hence, the anode has to be replaced from time to time. This increases the cost of production of aluminium. Molten aluminium sinks to the bottom, and is taken out from there.

Alloy

Composition

Uses

1. Brass Cu = 80%, Zn = 20% Harder than pure Cu and Zn ; used for making utensils, cartridges, etc.
2. Bronze Cu = 90%, Sn = 10% For making statues, medals, ships, coins, machines, etc.
3. Solder (common) Sn = 50%, Pb = 50% For joining metals, soldering wires, electronic components, etc.
4. Duralumin Al = 95.5%, Cu = 3%

Mn = 1% Mg = 0.5%

In bodies of aircraft, kitchenware, automobile parts, etc
5. Babbit metal Sn = 90%, Sb = 7%, Cu = 3% In antifriction lining
6. German silver Cu = 60%, Zn = 20%, Ni = 20% For making utensils, ornaments, etc.
7. Gun metal Cu = 60%, Sn = 10% Gears, castings, etc.
8. Bell metal Cu = 78%, Sn = 22% Bells, gongs, etc.
9. Magnalium Al = 90%, Mg = 10% Balance beams, light instruments, etc.
10. Pewter Sn = 75%, Pb = 25% Cups, mugs, etc.
11. Type metal Pb=82%, Sb = 15%, Sn = 3% Casting type

 

Alloy steels

Name

Composition Properties

Uses

1. Manganese Mn = 10 – 18% Extremely hard, resistant to wear Grinding machines, safes, etc.
2. Chrome-vanadium Cr = 1-10%, V = 0.15% Highly tensile, resistance to stress and torsin Axle and other parts of automobiles
3. Nickel-chromium Ni = 1-4%, Cr = 0.5-2% High tensile strength, hard and highly elastic Armour plates
4. 18–8 Cr = 18%, Ni = 8% Resistance to corrosion Cutlery, instrument
5. Alnico Co = 5% Highly magnetic Powerful permanent magnet

 

Important Chemical Reactions

  1. CaCO\xrightarrow{{Heat}}$   CaO + CO2
  2. CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3
  3. C + O2 → CO2
  4. 4P + 5O2 → 2P2O5
  5. S + O2 → SO2
  6. 4Na + O2 → 2Na2O
  7. 4K + O2 → 2K2O
  8. 2Ca + O2 → 2CaO
  9. CO2 + C → 2CO
  10. Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2
  11. Al2O3 × 2H2O + 2NaOH → 2NaAlO2 + 3H2O
  12. NaAlO2 + HCl + H2O → Al(OH)3 + NaCl
  13. 2Al(OH)3 \xrightarrow{{Heat}}$ Al2O3 + 3H2O
  14. 2CuS + 3O2 → 2CuO + 2SO2
  15. 3MnO4 + 4Al → 2Al2O3 + 3Mn
  16. Fe2O3 + 2Al → Al2O3 + 3Mn
  17. CuS + 2CuO → 3Cu + SO2
  18. Si + O2 → SiO2
  19. SiO2 + C → Si + CO2
  20. Si + \underset{{(Steam)}}{\mathop{{2{{H}_{2}}O}}}\,$ → SiO2 + 2H2
  21. Ca(OH)2 + Cl → \underset{{Bleaching\,\,power}}{\mathop{{CaOC{{l}_{2}}}}}\,+{{H}_{2}}O$
  22. CaSO4×2H2O \xrightarrow{{373\,K}}$ CaSO4 × \frac{1}{2}$ H2O + \frac{3}{2}$.H2O
  23. S+\underset{{(conc.)}}{\mathop{{2{{H}_{2}}S{{O}_{4}}}}}\,\to 3S{{O}_{2}}+2{{H}_{2}}O$
  24. H2 + S → H2S
  25. 2NaOH + SI + H2O → Na2SiO3 + 2H2
  26. C + H2O (Steam) → Na2SiO3 + 2H2
  27. P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O → \underset{{Phosphine}}{\mathop{{P{{H}_{3}}}}}\,+\underset{{Sodium\,\,hypophosphite}}{\mathop{{3Na{{H}_{2}}P{{O}_{2}}}}}\,$
  1. \underset{{Cinnabar}}{\mathop{{2HgS}}}\,+3{{O}_{2}}\to 2HgO+2S{{O}_{2}}$
  2. P4 + 6Cl2 → 4PCl3
  3. P4 + 10Cl2 → 4PCl5
  4. 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO
  5. Na2O + H2O → 2NaOH
  6. K2O + H2O → 2KOH
  7. CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
  8. 2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2
  9. 2K + 2H2O →2KOH + H2
  10. Ca + 2H2O → Ca(OH)2 + H2
  11. Mg + H2O \xrightarrow{{boil}}$ MgO + H2
  12. Zn + H2O ZnO + H2
  13. 3Fe + 4H2O (Steam) ¾® Fe3O4 + 4H2
  14. Zn + H2SO4 (dil) ¾® ZnSO4 + H2
  15. 2Na + 2HCI ¾® 2NaCl + H2
  16. Cu + CuSO4 + 2H2O + SO2
  17. Mg + 2HCl ¾® MgCl2 + H2
  18. 2Al + 6HCl ¾® 2AlCl3 + 3H2
  19. Zn + CuSO4 ¾® ZnSO4 + Cu
  20. Fe + CuSO4 ¾® FeSO4 + Cu
  21. Cu + 2AgNO3 ¾® Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag
  22. Cu(s) + 2Ag+  ¾®  Cu2+(aq) + 2Ag(s)
  23. CaCO3 + SiO2 ¾® CaSiO3 + CO2
  24. CuCO3  Cu + CO2
  25. ZnCO3 ZnO + CO2
  26. 2Na + H2 2NaH
  1. NaH + H2 NaOH + H2
  2. 4Al + 3O2 ¾® 2AlP3
  1. Ca + Cl2 ¾® CaCl2
  2. Fe + S FeS
  3. 2Al + 3Cl2 ¾® 2AlCl3
  4. 2Fe + 3Cl2 ¾® 2FeCl3
  5. Fe + H2SO4 (dil.) ¾® FeSO4 + H2
  6. Fe + 2HCl (dil.) ¾® FeCl2 + H2
  7. Mg + H2SO4 (dil.) ¾® MgSO4 + H2
  8. 2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O ¾® 2NaAlO2 + 3H2
  9. Zn + S ZnS
  10. FeS + H2SO4 (dil.) ¾® FeSO4 + H2S
  11. Cu + Cl2 ¾® CuCl2
  12. 2Cu + Oz ¾® 2CuO
  13. CuO + H2O ¾® Cu(OH)2
  14. Cu(OH)2 + CO2 ¾® CuCO3 + H2O
  15. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 ¾® CaCO3 + H2O
  16. 2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2
  17. 2ZnS + 3O2 ¾® 2ZnO + 2SO2
  18. SnO2 + C ¾® Sn + CO2
  19. FeCO3 FeO + CO2
  20. Na2CO3·10H2O Na2CO3 + 10H2O
  21. NH3 + H2O + CO2 ¾® (NH4)HCO3
  22. (NH4)HCO3 + NaCl ¾® NaHCO3 + NH4Cl
  23. CO2 + H2O ¾® H2CO3
  24. SO2 + H2O ¾® H2SO3
  25. SO3 + H2O ¾® H2SO4
  26. S + 6HNO3 (Conc.) ¾® H2SO4 + 6NO2 + 2H2O
  27. P2O5 + 3H2O ¾® 2H3PO4
  28. N2O5 + H2O ¾® 2HNO3
  29. Si + 2Cl2 SiCl4
  30. Si + 4HCl ¾® SiCl4 + 2H2
  31. P + 5HNO3 (Cone.) ¾® H3PO4 + 5NO2 + H2O
  32. C + 4HNO3 (Cone.) ¾® CO2 + 4NO2 + 2H2O
  33. Ca3(PO4)2 + 3SiO2 ¾® 3CaSiO3 + P2O5
  34. 2P2O5 + 10C ¾® P4 + 10 CO
  35. P4 + 3O2 ¾® 2P2O3
  36. P4 + 5O2 ¾® 2P2O5
  37. C + 2S CS2
  38. Cu + ¾®  Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
  39. 3Zn + 8HNO3(dil) ¾® 3Zn(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O
  40. Mg + 2HNO3 (5%) ¾® Mg(NO3)2 + H2
  41. Mn + 2HNO3 (5%) ¾® Mn(NO3)2 + H2
  42. 4Zn + ¾® 4Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O
  43. Mg + ZnSO4 ¾® MgSO4 + Zn
  44. Mg + CuSO4 ¾® MgSO4 + Cu
  45. Mg + FeSO4 ¾® MgSO4 + Fe