Electric Motor (Direct Current Motor or DC Motor)
Principle : It works on the principle of motion of a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field, according to Fleming’s Left Hand Rule.
It is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy of rotation.
Diagram of DC Motor
Construction of DC Motor
It has four mains parts, named below.
A field magnet having concave magnetic poles N–S, which provides a strong magnetic field.
An armature, which is moving part of the motor. It has two parts :
(i) Laminated shaft X–Y.
(ii) Copper coil ABCD wrapped on end X of the shaft inside the field.
A pair of metallic split rings R1 and R2 (commutator).
A pair of metallic carbon brushes B1 and B2.
Working of DC Motor
A direct current (D.C.) source is connected between metallic brushes B1 and B2. When current passes through the coil, it flows in arms CB and AD in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Equal and opposite forces act on these arms (in a direction according to Fleming’s Left hand Rule) and they form a couple. The coil rotates in clockwise direction (Fig.). After half rotation, split parts of ring change brushes. Current becomes reverse in the arms but couple acts in same direction as before. The coil continues rotating the shaft on which it is wrapped. Thus, rotatory motion (motor action) becomes available.
The rotation is not smooth with single coil. It is made smooth by increasing number of coils (multi phase motor) or preferably by having a continuous winding.