Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 – Life Lines of National Economy Note

Importance of Means of Transport and Communication

The means of transport and communication are called the lifelines of a country and its economy.

The world is developing very fast and means of communication play a vital role in the development of the world.

  1. These help to transfer better technology from one country to other or from one place to other.
  2. Means of communication help the traders to have links with other traders and means of transport provide essential product.
  3. Means of communication act like nervous system in the human body.
  4. Means of transportation carry common people from one place to another.
  5. They maintain the balance of demand and supply in the economy.
  6. These play a very vital role in the defence of a country.
  7. They have shortened the distances between various places.


Roadways have an edge over railways due to following features :

  1. Road require less investment as compared to railway.
  2. These can be built at higher altitudes and at any place.
  3. Maintenance cost is also low.
  4. Road transportation has the merit of offering personal services.
  5. Extension of agriculture is possible only through road transportation.
  6. It is easy and is within the reach of common man.
  7. Road transport is used as a feeder to other mades  of transport i.e. they act as a link between railway stations, ports & airports.

Problems of Indian Roads

  1. The road network is inadequate in India as compared to demand and volume of traffic.
  2. The condition of most of the roads is very poor these become muddy during the rainy season.
  3. They are highly congested in cities.
  4. Most of the highways lack side amenities like telephone booth, police station etc.

Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways : The super highways have been planned to meet the requirement of fast movement of traffic.

The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six lane super high ways. The North-South corridors linking Sri-Nagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil-Nadu), and East-West corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project.

Major Objective : To reduce the time and distance between the mega cities. Implemented by – National Highway Authority of India”.

National Highways : The main roads which are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (C.P.W.D.) are known as National Highways. They correct one state with another and are of national importance.

Main  features

  1. The National Highways maintain the availability of essential product.
  2. The state to state trade is possible because of National Highways.
  3. All the essential products are transported through these roads.

State Highways

  1. These are constructed and maintained by the state government.
  2. State highways join the state capitals with district head quarters and other important towns.
  3. The total length of state highways in India is 4 lakh km approx.
  4. These also contribute in the development of states.

District Road

  1. These roads link the district centres with the major roads.
  2. Their total length is nearly 6 lakh km.
  3. These roads are maintained by Zila Parishad.

Village Roads

  1. These connect the villages with the neighbouring towns and cities.
  2. These play a very vital role in the development of villages.
  3. These help the farmers to take their products to cities and district head quarters.
  4. These roads received impetus under the pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.

Border Roads

The Border roads organisation was established in 1960 for the development of roads of strategic importance in the northern and north eastern border areas. These roads have improved accessibility in areas of deficient terrain& have helped in the economic development of these areas.


Major Problems of Indian Railways :

  1. Most of the tracks are very old.
  2. Many passengers travel without tickets.
  3. People pull chains unnecessarily which cause heavy loss to the railways.
  4. Frequent accidents also cause great loss to the railway.
  5. Airways is also giving it a tough competition.

Main factors which influence the Railway Network

  1. Physiographic
  2. Economic and Administrative

Physiographic Factors

  1. The level land of the great plains have favoured the development of Railways.
  2. The flood plain of Bihar and Assam and the rugged topography of the Himalayan region have led to very few Railways lines.
  3. The sandy desert of Rajasthan and hilly tracts of Sahayadri are unfavourable for the development of Railways.

Economic Factors

  1. Rich agriculture and greater industrial activity on the great plains have favoured the development of Railways.
  2. Capital of India New Delhi is also located in Northern plain.

Importance of Railways

  1. It carry most of the long distance passengers traffic and 80 % of the total freight of the country.
  2. It provide employment to a large number of people in the country.
  3. Iron and steel industry solely depends upon the Railways.
  4. It play a significant role in the integration of the country by bringing different peoples and regions together.
  5. They carry big chunks of goods from the place of production to the part and vice versa.


Pipelines are a convenient mode of transport for mineral oil & natural gas.

Advantages of pipeline transportation

  1. Transportation through pipe lines rules out delay and transportation.
  2. Though initial cost of laying pipelines is high but running cost is very low.
  3. It maintain continuous supply of gas and oil.
  4. The pipes can be laid through difficult terrains as well as under sea.

Important networks of pipeline Transportation

  1. From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (U.P.) Via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Brauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Silgur.
  2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali.
  3. Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connect Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh via Bijapur in Madhya Pradesh. It has Branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Sabrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.
  4. Pipelines between Mumbai high and Mumbai, Pune.


Importance of Water ways

  1. It is most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
  2. It is a fuel efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.
  3. The element of wear and tear is very less.
  4. More than 95 % of the country’s trade volume is moved by the sea.
  5. With the development of National Waterways it has become main source of transportation for the natural trade.

Inland water ways :

National water ways :

  1. The Ganga river, between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)
  2. The Brahmputra river, between Sadiya and Dhubri. (891 km).
  3. The West-Coast canal, between Kollam and Kottayam in Kerala. (168 km)
  4. The Champakara canal (14 km) and Udyogmandal canal in Kerala (22 km)


India has about 7516 km long coast line having 12 major & 181 medium & miner sea parts.

On the Western Coast

  1. Kandla : It is Kuchchh district of Gujarat. This was the first port developed soon after the independence of India. It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrial belt stretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
  1. Mumbai : It is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well sheltered harbour.
  1. Jawaharlal Nehru Port : The port at Nehru Sheva was planned with a view to decongest mumbai port and serve as hub port for this region.
  1. Marmagao Port (Goa) : It is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country. This ports accounts for about 50 % of India’s iron ore export.
  1. New Mangalore : The port is located in Karnataka. It caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudremumh mines.
  1. Kochi : It is the extreme south-western port, located at the entrance of lagoon with a natural harbour.

On the Eastern Coast :

  1. Tuticorin :  The port is in Tamil Nadu. This port has a natural harbour and rich hinterland. It has a flourishing trade handling of a large variety of cargoes to Srilanka & Maldives.
  1. Chennai : It is one of the oldest artifical port of the country. It is ranked next to Mumbai in terms of the volume of trade and cargo.
  1. Vishakhapatnam : It is the deepest land locked and well protected port. This port was originally, conceived as an outlet for iron ore exports.
  1. Paradip : The port is located in Orissa, specialises in the export of iron ore.
  1. Kolkata : It is an inland riverine port. This port serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga Brahamputra basin. It is a tidal port. So it requires constant dredging of Hoogly.
  1. Haldia : It is in West Bengal. It was development as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port.


Advantages of air ways

  1. It is the fastest means of transport and save time.
  2. It can cover very difficult terrains like high mountains, desert, thick forests and long stretches of seas with great ease.
  3. It also help in increasing the trade especially that of perishable product.
  4. It reduce pressure on roads and railways.
  5. It was Nationalised in 1953.


There are basically two types of means of communication :

  1. Personal communication.
  2. Mass communication.

Personal communication

  1. Personal messages are exchanged.
  2. These can be used by individual for his personal activity.
  3. Telephone, Mobile, Postal services, post cards etc are the main sources of personal communication.

Mass communication

  1. One person can communicate with several people at the same time.
  2. They can be used by the government to create awareness among the people about various national programmes.
  3. Radio, T.V., Newspaper etc are the main source of mass communication.

Indian Postal System

  1. It is the largest in the Indian Postal System world.
  2. It handles parcles as well as personal written communication.
  3. Cards and envelopes are considered first class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
  4. The second class mail includes the book packets, registered newspaper and periodicals.
  5. Six mail channels have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani channel, Metro channel, Green Channel Business channel, Bulk mail channel and Periodical channel.


  1. India has one of the largest Telecom network in Asia.
  2. With the opening of Telecom sector to private investment this has become fast growing sector of Indian economy.
  3. By the end of 2004-05, India was the 10th largest telecom network in the world measured in terms of number of phones.

International Trade

Trade : The exchange of goods and services among people states and countries is reffered as trade.

Market : It is the place where exchange of goods take place.

International Trade : Trade between two countries is called international trade. Trade take place through sea, air or land.

Importance of Trade

  1. No country can survive without international trade because resources are space bound.
  2. Advancement of international trade of a country leads to its economic prosperity.
  3. We earn much of our foreign exchange which is required for importing many essential goods.
  4. Exports and imports are the two compounds of trade.

Balance of Triade : The difference between exports & imports is known as balance of trade.

Favourable balance of trade : If the value of exports of any country is more than the value of imports. It is called a favourable balance of trade.

Unfavorable balance of trade : The value of imports is more than the value of exports, it is called an unfavorable balance of trade.

India has trade relations with all the trading blocks of the world most of the commodities exported from India consists of both row material and manufactured goods which fetches less income. commodities imported are mostly petroleum, gold, chemicals etc, which the mostly costly. Thus the overall balance of trade is unfavorable.




  1. Balance of Trade : Relation between Nation’s exports and imports.
  2. Balance of Payment : It is a comprehensive record of economic transactions of the residents of a country with the rest of world during a given period of time.
  3. Exports : When a nation sends its home manufactured products to outside countries these are called exports.
  4. Foreign exchange : It is the exchange of currency of one country with the currency of another country.
  5. Favourable balance of Trade : It is a situation in which value of export is more than imports.
  6. Harbour : It is a deep cost of sea which provides shelters to the sea going vessels.
  7. Golden quadrilateral : It is a network of roads which connects Delhi, Mumbai, chennai and Kolkata.
  8. Imports : When citizen of a country consume the products of other countries these are known as imports.
  9. International Trade : Trade carried between various nations to exchange their goods.
  10. Mass communication : The means of communication through which one can communicate with several people at the same time.
  11. National Highway : These are broad roads connecting many states and capitals.
  12. Transport : It is an act of carrying goods or passengers from one place to another.
  13. Unfavourable balance of Trade : It is a situation in which value of imports is more than exports.


Very Short Answer Type Question

  1. Name any four means of mass communication.
  2. What is a transport ?
  3. What are express ways ?
  4. What are National Highway ?
  5. Why do the great plains of India have dense network of railway ?
  6. Name any four water ways of India.
  7. What do you mean by favourable balance of trade ? Is India’s trade favourable ?
  8. Name a tidal port ?
  9. Name the extreme stations which are connected by the East-West corridor.
  10. Name the institution which implements the Super Highways.
  11. Name the extreme cities which are connected by the NHI.
  12. What is the density of a road ?
  13. Name any two inland waterways.
  14. Name any four ports of east coast.
  15. Define the term ‘port’.
  16. What are considered the first class mail ?
  17. What are considered the second class mail ?
  18. Why mail channels have been introduced ?
  19. What do you mean by balance of trade ?
  20. Define the following :
    (A) Market
    (B) Trade
    (C) International Trade

Short Answer Type Question

  1. What are super Highways ? Name any two roads which have been constructed under this project.
  2. What is the main objective behind the Super Highways ? Which agency is responsible for building these raods ?
  3. What are National Highways ? What is their importance ?
  4. Mention any four features of the Border Roads.
  5. Distinguish between metalled road and unmetalled roads.
  6. What are major problems of Indian roads ?
  7. What is the importance of ports for the Indian economy ?
  8. Mention any four features of the telecom Network of India.
  9. “Transport routes are called the basic arteries of our economy”. Support the statement with four examples.
  10. How do physiographic and economic factors influence the distribution pattern of Indian railways network ?
  11. What are rural roads? Name and explain a Yojana which has been launched by the government to provide impetus to these roads.
  12. Explain, why is air transport preferred in north-eastern states of India.
  13. What do you mean by the density of the roads ? Name the state with :
    (i) Highest density of roads
    (ii) Lowest density of roads.
  14. What is a railway gauge ? Write three types of railway gauges.
  15. State three  points regarding the importance of pipelines in transportation.      

Long Answer Type Question

  1. What is the importance of roads in India ? Explain any four major problems faced by road transportation.
  2. Explain the importance of means communication in modern times. How are personal communication different from mass communication.
  3. Compare and contrast roads and railways as means of transport ?
  4. Why are means of transport and communication essential requirements of human life ?
  5. Explain the importance of air transport in India.
  6. Explain any six qualitative improvements made in Indian Railways.
  7. Explain any four advantages of pipeline transportation. Name any two important networks of pipe line transportation in India.
  8. What is importance of tourism ?
  9. How can the different mass communication media educate the people ?
  10. Name any four sea ports of India. Also mention one feature of each.

Multiple Choice Question

1. National Highway-8 connects –

(A) Delhi-Bangalore   (B) Chennai-Kolkata

(C) Delhi-Mumbai      (D) Mumbai-Chennai

2. Indian railways are divided into ……….zones –

(A) 20       (B) 9        (C) 16       (D) 18

3. The longest pipeline connects –

(A) Hazira to Kanpur

(B) Salaya to Jalandhar

(C) Hazira to Jagdishpur

(D) Koyali to Haldia

4. The total length of Inland navigation waterways of India is –

(A) 3700 km              (B) 14500 km

(C) 7500 km              (D) 14000 km

5. India’s international trade mainly takes place through –

(A) Railways             (B) Seas and oceans

(C) Airways               (D) Roadways

6. Who maintains and lays the National Highways ?

(A) CPWD                (B) SPWD

(C) Both                    (D) None of these

7. Who maintains and lays the state highways ?

(A) SPWD                (B) BRO

(C) CPWD                (D) All of these

8. Who maintains the border roads ?

(A) BRO                   (B) SPWD

(C) NHI                    (D) CPWD

9. What is the total route length of the Indian railways ?

(A) 68221                 (B) 65221

(C) 60221                  (D) 63221

10. Which is the cheapest means of transport ?

(A) Airways              (B) Water ways

(C) Roadways            (D) Railways

11. What is the length of the coast line of India –

(A) 7516.6 km           (B) 8516.6 km

(C) 6516.6 km           (D) 9516.6 km

12. Name an important port located near Tropic of Cancer –

(A) Kandla                (B) Mumbai

(C) Kolkata               (D) Chennai

13. Name the premier iron ore exporting port of the country –

(A) Marmagao           (B) New Mangalore

(C) Paradip                (D) None of these

14. Name the deepest land locked port –

(A) Kolkata

(B) Chennai

(C) Mumbai

(D) Vishakhapatnam

15. What are considered the first class mail –

(A) Cards

(B) Registered

(C) Envelops

(D) None of these

16. East-West corridor connects …………..and ………

(A) Silchar, Porbander

(B) Silchar, Kanyakmari

(C) Silchar, Srinagar

(D) Mumbai, Kolkata

17. What is NHAI ?

(A) National Highway Association of India

(B) National Highway Authority of India

(C) Natural Highway Authority of India

(D) National Airways of India

18. Which of the following highway is known as Sher Shah Suri Marg ?

(A) National Highway No. 1

(B) National Highway No.2

(C) National Highway No. 3

(D) National Highway No.4

19. Which of the following roads received special impectus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana ?

(A) District Roads

(B) National Highways

(C) State Highways

(D) Other Roads

20. The Indian railway network runs on multiple gauge operations i.e.,………, ……… and ……….

(A) Wide gauge, metro gauge and narrow gauge

(B) Broad gauge, narrow gauge and medium gauge

(C) Broad gauge, narrow gauge and small gauge

(D) Broad gauge, metro gauge and narrow gauge

21. Which of the following was the first port to be developed after independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port ?

(A) Marmagao

(B) Kochi

(C) Kandla

(D) Vishakhapatnam

22. Which of the following is a tidal port ?

(A) Kandla

(B) Mumbai

(C) New Mangalore

(D) Vishakhapatnam

23. ………. means of transport is preferred in the North-Eastern states –

(A) Railways

(B) Waterways

(C) Airways

(D) Roadways

24. ……….. is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films –

(A) The Central Board of Film Certification

(B) The Parliament

(C) The President

(D) The Central Board of Secondary Education

25. Match the following :

(a) Marmagao               1. Karnataka

(b) Tuticorin                 2. Orissa

(c) Paradip                   3. Tamil Nadu

(d) New Mangalore       4. Goa

a b c d
(A) 4 3 2 1
(B) 1 2 4 3
(C) 2 3 4 1
(D) 4 2 1 3

26. Which of the following is a major commodity imported by India ?

(A) Gems and Jewellery

(B) Petroleum and petroleum products

(C) Cereals

(D) Newsprint

Answer Key

Q.No 1 2 3 4 5
Ans. C B B B C
Q.No 6 7 8 9 10
Ans. A A C A A
Q.No 11 12 13 14 15
Ans. B C D C D
Q.No 16 17 18 19 20
Ans. A B A D D
Q.No 21 22 23 24 25
Ans. C A C A A
Q.No 26
Ans. B